Allosteric "beta-blocker" isolated from a DNA-encoded small molecule library.

Authors: Ahn S, Kahsai AW, Pani B, Wang QT, Zhao S, Wall AL, Strachan RT, Staus DP, Wingler LM, Sun LD, Sinnaeve J, Choi M, Cho T, Xu TT, Hansen GM, Burnett MB, Lamerdin JE, Bassoni DL, Gavino BJ, Husemoen G, Olsen EK, Franch T, Costanzi S, Chen X, Lefkowitz RJ
Publisher/Year: Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2017 Feb 14;114(7):1708-1713.
Pub Med ID/Journal ID: PMID:28130548

Abstract

The β2-adrenergic receptor (β2AR) has been a model system for understanding regulatory mechanisms of G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) actions and plays a significant role in cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases. Because all known β-adrenergic receptor drugs target the orthosteric binding site of the receptor, we set out to isolate allosteric ligands for this receptor by panning DNA-encoded small-molecule libraries comprising 190 million distinct compounds against purified human β2AR. Here, we report the discovery of a small-molecule negative allosteric modulator (antagonist), compound 15 [([4-((2S)-3-(((S)-3-(3-bromophenyl)-1-(methylamino)-1-oxopropan-2-yl)amino)-2-(2-cyclohexyl-2-phenylacetamido)-3-oxopropyl)benzamide], exhibiting a unique chemotype and low micromolar affinity for the β2AR. Binding of 15 to the receptor cooperatively enhances orthosteric inverse agonist binding while negatively modulating binding of orthosteric agonists. Studies with a specific antibody that binds to an intracellular region of the β2AR suggest that 15 binds in proximity to the G-protein binding site on the cytosolic surface of the β2AR. In cell-signaling studies, 15 inhibits cAMP production through the β2AR, but not that mediated by other Gs-coupled receptors. Compound 15 also similarly inhibits β-arrestin recruitment to the activated β2AR. This study presents an allosteric small-molecule ligand for the β2AR and introduces a broadly applicable method for screening DNA-encoded small-molecule libraries against purified GPCR targets. Importantly, such an approach could facilitate the discovery of GPCR drugs with tailored allosteric effects.